- Are you immune to COVID-19 if you get it once?
- Is COVID-19 caused by a virus or by bacteria?
- How long does it take to produce antibodies to fight the coronavirus disease?
- What is the percentage of people who need to be immune against COVID-19 in order to achieve herd immunity?
- Can COVID-19 be transmitted through feces or urine?
- Is a smoker at a higher risk of getting the COVID-19 virus than that a non-smoker?
Are you immune to COVID-19 if you get it once?
Research is still ongoing into how strong that protection is and how long it lasts.
WHO is also looking into whether the strength and length of immune response depends on the type of infection a person has: without symptoms (‘asymptomatic’), mild or severe.
Even people without symptoms seem to develop an immune response..
Is COVID-19 caused by a virus or by bacteria?
FACT: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by a virus, NOT by bacteria.The virus that causes COVID-19 is in a family of viruses called Coronaviridae. Antibiotics do not work against viruses. Some people who become ill with COVID-19 can also develop a bacterial infection as a complication. In this case, antibiotics may be recommended by a health care provider. There is currently no licensed medication to cure COVID-19. If you have symptoms, call your health care provider or COVID-19 hotline for assistance.
How long does it take to produce antibodies to fight the coronavirus disease?
See full answerThere is another, more common type of rapid diagnostic test marketed for COVID-19; a test that detects the presence of antibodies in the blood of people believed to have been infected with COVID-19. Antibodies are produced over days to weeks after infection with the virus. The strength of antibody response depends on several factors, including age, nutritional status, severity of disease, and certain medications or infections like HIV that suppress the immune system.In some people with COVID-19, disease confirmed by molecular testing (e.g. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction: RT-PCR), weak, late or absent antibody responses have been reported. Studies suggest that the majority of patients develop antibody response only in the second week after onset of symptoms.
What is the percentage of people who need to be immune against COVID-19 in order to achieve herd immunity?
See full answerWe are still learning about immunity to COVID-19. Most people who are infected with COVID-19 develop an immune response within the first few weeks, but we don’t know how strong or lasting that immune response is, or how it differs for different people. There have also been reports of people infected with COVID-19 for a second time. Until we better understand COVID-19 immunity, it will not be possible to know how much of a population is immune and how long that immunity last for, let alone make future predictions. These challenges should preclude any plans that try to increase immunity within a population by allowing people to get infected.
Can COVID-19 be transmitted through feces or urine?
SARS-CoV-2 RNA has also been detected in other biological samples, including the urine and feces of some patients. One study found viable SARS-CoV-2 in the urine of one patient. Three studies have cultured SARS-CoV-2 from stool specimens. To date, however, there have been no published reports of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through feces or urine.
Is a smoker at a higher risk of getting the COVID-19 virus than that a non-smoker?
See full answerAt the time of preparing this Q&A, there are no peer-reviewed studies that have evaluated the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with smoking. However, tobacco smokers (cigarettes, waterpipes, bidis, cigars, heated tobacco products) may be more vulnerable to contracting COVID-19, as the act of smoking involves contact of fingers (and possibly contaminated cigarettes) with the lips, which increases the possibility of transmission of viruses from hand to mouth. Smoking waterpipes, also known as shisha or hookah, often involves the sharing of mouth pieces and hoses, which could facilitate the transmission of the COVID-19 virus in communal and social settings.